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The Quality Of Fish Food


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#1 Crossfire

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Posted 19 August 2012 - 11:35 PM

What constitutes that a fish food is the best? Is it by how expensive it is? How much fish like to eat it? The ingredients? There is much speculation as to what actually makes it good for fish.
First, we need to understand how a fish digests and absorbs its nutrition.  Humans absorb their energy from carbohydrates, considered to be a good energy source.  Fish, however absorb their energy from lipids, and so fish need more protein in their diets then, say, gluten.   Amino acids also need to be considered in a fish’s diet.  All animals have different kinds of amino acids they need to survive, for example, cats need taurine in their diet or they will have heart problems. Some fish digest slowly, the best example are goldfish, these fish cannot handle large quantity of protein in their diets because of slow digestion. These fish should be feed either less or a less meaty food to prevent bloat or dropsy from intestinal gas or infections.
Back to amino acids and proteins, we need to understand that not all sources have the equal nutrition.  The amino acids fish need to be healthy are Arginine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine + Cystine3, Phenylalanine + Tryosine4, Threonine, Tryptophan, and Valine.  These are most found in whole fish meal (salmon works best), Cyclops, fish roe, and surprisingly spirulina algae. Some fish foods supplant meaty protein with plant and wheat protein, which is practically filler and lacks the vital lysine and methionine acids. Therefore, depending on the fish, the more meaty protein and the less plant protein the food has, the better the food.
Lipids, or fats, provide a fish with energy, insulation, protection against shock, and promoting healthy cells. Fats also help the fish absorb important vitamins A, D, E, and K.   These vitamins are fat soluble, and can only be digested and absorbed with fat. Lipids from whole fish meal contain healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6. These fats are needed to promote health in a fish and are important in any fish food.  These can only be found in whole fish meal, as plain fish meal is devoid of these healthy fatty oils.
Carbohydrates are found in sugars, starches, gums and celluloses. Most carbohydrates enter fish through plant matter.  Due to this, carnivorous fish have little need for them.  The plant matter they do absorb is digested from a prey’s stomach contents when the predator consumes them. Feeding carnivorous fish a food high in carbohydrate containing food will leave them with malnutrition. The opposite is that herbivorous fish will gain from foods high in carbohydrates.
Throughout this, I have mentioned fish meal.  But what is it? There are two types. If on the ingredients it says “Fish Meal”, then they mean the waste, bones, and offal of fish not suitable for human consumption.  In short, it’s the pink slime of fish food. The desirable kind, is “Whole Fish Meal”, which is fish caught purposely to be made into fish meal.  It is a whole fish ground up, and still contains all the essential amino acids and protein and lipids. It is even better if it lists a specific fish, such as “Whole Fish Meal (Salmon)” or “South Antarctic Krill”. Whole Fish Meal also contains 17%-25% ash, which contains vital minerals like calcium and phosphorus, which aids in osmoregulation. The only drawback is that whole fish meal is 2 to 3 times more expensive then regular fish meal, but is worth it in the long run.
Shrimp meal is a good ingredient, it contains pigments that help brighten colors and is very tasty to fish and helps to feed finicky fish. It is used as a meaty protein source, but is still inferior to whole fish meal.
Squid meal is a highly digestible protein source, good for feeding to fry to encourage fast growth. It contains plenty of good minerals and vitamins.
Brine shrimp has a good amount of carotene for color amplifying and acts as a natural laxative, but is used sparingly because of its high water content.
Spirulina is found in almost all fish foods, because it contains many healthy compounds. It has raw protein and vitamins A1, B1, B2, B6, B12, C and E.  It also contains pigments beta-carotene, which improves coloration. Because it is more of a bacteria then algae, it boosts a fish’s immune system because a fish will release antibodies to investigate.
Garlic is a wonder in any fish food.  It is antiseptic, boosts immune system, helps resist parasitic infections, and vigorously induces appetite to finicky fish. Garlic also contains Allicin (Diallyl thiosulfinate) It has been scientifically proven to treat fish tuberculosis. Some human studies show the effectiveness of Garlic in treatment Streptoccocus (which can affect fish).
Beef heart should rarely be used in fish food, and fed only as a treat. Carnivorous fish may enjoy it, and it helps fry grow quickly, but it is 18% saturated fat.  It negatively affects the fish’s digestive tract and kidneys, causing a short lifespan. A study in the 1980s had Oscars eat primarily beef heart and the fish had much shorter life spans and were more prone to disease like HITH. The aquatic author Martin A. Moe once stated “Fish are cold blooded and all digestion reactions take place at 70 to 80F, the temp of aquarium water. Thus they may not be able to efficiently digest or use the types of fats present in the flesh of warm blooded animals. They are much better off with the flesh of animals that are similar to their normal prey,”
Soybean meal has been used as a meaty protein substitute for a while.  It contains most of the good amino acids, lipids, and vitamins, as well as being cheap.  But it still lacks what whole fish meal has. Soybean meal is a better filler than wheat germ, but it should never be listed as the first ingredient.
Wheat Germ is a carbohydrate, and not the best for fish.  It’s used as filler for protein, but it still contains vitamin E, good for improving fish color.  Wheat Germ is best used in foods for goldfish, as it provides protein but slowly and not as meaty as fish meal.  It helps prevent bloat and other intestinal distress commonly found in goldfish.
Fish color enhancers should always be found naturally in their food, such as carotenoids, zeaxanthins, and astaxanthins.

By using these facts, I have taken some of the most popular fish food brands and rated them on a scale of 1-10. 1 being poor, 10 being excellent. I look at the ingredients and check to see what protein source is used, additives, and fillers.  I will not take personal experience into my ratings, nor if fish enjoy it. See, fish food is like junk food.  If you put candy and spinach in front of a child, they will always go for the candy.  Just because a fish likes to eat a certain food, doesn’t make it good for them. The popular excuse “my fish loves it, so it must be healthy!” is as dumb as saying “My kid loves eating Twinkies, so it must be healthy!” Some fish may not take to the healthiest food on this list, and that’s ok.  You will need to supplement with other foods or drop some vitamins on before feeding.  


Here are some fish foods rated with the facts above:

TetraMin Tropical Flakes- 3
Loaded with fillers, artifical dyes and poor protein sources

Drs. Foster and Smith Tropical Flakes- 7
Good sources of protein, few fillers, natural coloring

Cobalt Aquatics Tropical Flakes- 7
Good sources of protein, garlic, loads of vitamins

Hikari Micro Pellets- 6
  Garlic, important amino acids,carbohydrate fillers

O.S.I Freshwater Flakes-5.5
Poor protein source, carbohydrate fillers

Aqueon Tropical Flakes- 8.7
Great protein sources, full of vitamins and amino acids, few fillers

Wardley Advanced Nutritioned Perfect Protein Tropical Flakes-6.5
It's got protein all right...plant matter and filler protein

Sera O-Nip Tablets with Tidbits- 7
Few fillers, but moderate protein

API Tropical Fish Flakes- 9
Great protein sources, garlic, full of good vitamins, amino acids, and great ingredients

New Life Spectrum +Thera-A-10
No fillers, great protein source, garlic galore, nothing artifical

Edited by Crossfire, 19 August 2012 - 11:38 PM.

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Fluval Chi 5 Gallon:  1 Female Betta (Rosy), 3 African Dwarf Frogs

#2 Crossfire

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Posted 19 August 2012 - 11:40 PM

Here are my sources:

http://www.thefishsi...uaculture-diets

http://www.americana..._Fish_Food.html

http://www.americana...ulinaAlgae.html
See the new 20 Gallon Rescape!
20 Gallon: 3 Harlequin Rasboras, 2 Pink Jewel Tetras, 7 Cardinal Tetras, 7 Kuhli Loaches, 1 Sparkling Gourami, 1 Peacock Goby, 3 Otocinclus catfish, 3 Amano Shrimp, 1 Zebra Nerite Snail
Fluval Chi 5 Gallon:  1 Female Betta (Rosy), 3 African Dwarf Frogs

#3 onidrase

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Posted 19 August 2012 - 11:58 PM

Any calls on Omega One? That's what I've been giving my fishes for some time now.

300L: 1 White Oscar/3 Raphael Catfish/1 Bristlenose Pleco

180L: 2 Julidochromis dickfeldi, 4 Neolamprologus multifasciatus, 2 Altolamprologus compressiceps


#4 Crossfire

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Posted 20 August 2012 - 12:06 AM

View Postonidrase, on 19 August 2012 - 11:58 PM, said:

Any calls on Omega One? That's what I've been giving my fishes for some time now.

Omerga One Freshwater Flakes:
Whole Salmon, Halibut, Black Cod, Whole Herring , Whole Shrimp, Whole Krill, Wheat Flour, Wheat Gluten, Fresh Kelp, Lecithin, Astaxanthin, L-Ascorbyl-2-Phosphate (Source of Vitamin C), Natural and Artificial Colors, Vitamin A Acetate, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid, Folic Acid, Biotin, Inositol, Tocopherol (Preservative), Ethoxyquin (Preservative).

I give it an 8.5.  It has an amazing assortment of proteins, but it's got some carbohydrate fillers. All in all, a good staple food :thumbsup:
See the new 20 Gallon Rescape!
20 Gallon: 3 Harlequin Rasboras, 2 Pink Jewel Tetras, 7 Cardinal Tetras, 7 Kuhli Loaches, 1 Sparkling Gourami, 1 Peacock Goby, 3 Otocinclus catfish, 3 Amano Shrimp, 1 Zebra Nerite Snail
Fluval Chi 5 Gallon:  1 Female Betta (Rosy), 3 African Dwarf Frogs

#5 onidrase

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Posted 20 August 2012 - 12:56 AM

Do you know exactly what "Omega 3 and 6 HUFA's" are? That's omega ones boast in the fish food industry, and it's the only stuff that has it at my petsmart, so I just get it cause it throws fancy terminologies at me which sound important but I don't understand.

Regardless, my fish have been growing on steroids in comparison to how they grew on aqueon's diet. took my old raphael 3 months to get from 2 inches to 3.5 inches. my latest three have grown from 1.5 inches to 6 inches in 5 months on omega one.

Edited by onidrase, 20 August 2012 - 12:58 AM.

300L: 1 White Oscar/3 Raphael Catfish/1 Bristlenose Pleco

180L: 2 Julidochromis dickfeldi, 4 Neolamprologus multifasciatus, 2 Altolamprologus compressiceps


#6 Crossfire

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Posted 20 August 2012 - 01:32 AM

View Postonidrase, on 20 August 2012 - 12:56 AM, said:

Do you know exactly what "Omega 3 and 6 HUFA's" are? That's omega ones boast in the fish food industry, and it's the only stuff that has it at my petsmart, so I just get it cause it throws fancy terminologies at me which sound important but I don't understand.

Regardless, my fish have been growing on steroids in comparison to how they grew on aqueon's diet. took my old raphael 3 months to get from 2 inches to 3.5 inches. my latest three have grown from 1.5 inches to 6 inches in 5 months on omega one.

Quote

Lipids, or fats, provide a fish with energy, insulation, protection against shock, and promoting healthy cells. Fats also help the fish absorb important vitamins A, D, E, and K.   These vitamins are fat soluble, and can only be digested and absorbed with fat. Lipids from whole fish meal contain healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6. These fats are needed to promote health in a fish and are important in any fish food.  These can only be found in whole fish meal, as plain fish meal is devoid of these healthy fatty oils.

Your fish are growing so quickly because of the high protein content of OmegaOne.  
See the new 20 Gallon Rescape!
20 Gallon: 3 Harlequin Rasboras, 2 Pink Jewel Tetras, 7 Cardinal Tetras, 7 Kuhli Loaches, 1 Sparkling Gourami, 1 Peacock Goby, 3 Otocinclus catfish, 3 Amano Shrimp, 1 Zebra Nerite Snail
Fluval Chi 5 Gallon:  1 Female Betta (Rosy), 3 African Dwarf Frogs

#7 onidrase

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Posted 20 August 2012 - 04:30 AM

Agh, I need to keep my head out of the scientific section, this is all too confusing to me

thanks for giving my fish food a number, though, that's something I can understand XD

300L: 1 White Oscar/3 Raphael Catfish/1 Bristlenose Pleco

180L: 2 Julidochromis dickfeldi, 4 Neolamprologus multifasciatus, 2 Altolamprologus compressiceps


#8 DrRob

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Posted 20 August 2012 - 08:57 AM

I wonder whether a counter reference with being popular with the fish, accepting what you say about it's importance, would still be useful. It would, almost certainly, be anecdotal, but a level 10 food that most fish will turn their noses up at is, when all is told, just a source of ammonia, whereas an 8.5 that they love is a better food.

#9 Pablothebetta

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Posted 20 August 2012 - 10:10 AM

A very useful and informative post :)

The first 8 or so ingredients in my betta food (Hikari Betta Bio-Gold) according to the back of the packaging are wheat flour, fish meal, soybean meal, gluten meal, krill meat, wheat germ meal and cuttlefish oil, with a typical 41% crude protien. There is garlic further down the list too. After reading your post though, I'm wondering if I ought to get some better food. I do occassionally feed him freeze-dried bloodworms or pea, but is there a better alternative that I could give him?

Edited by Pablothebetta, 20 August 2012 - 10:13 AM.


#10 Alm0stAwesome

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Posted 20 August 2012 - 10:21 AM

That's interesting pablo, I've often thought betta food was a load of "you-know-what" lol

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#11 Crossfire

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Posted 20 August 2012 - 02:03 PM

View PostDrRob, on 20 August 2012 - 08:57 AM, said:

I wonder whether a counter reference with being popular with the fish, accepting what you say about it's importance, would still be useful. It would, almost certainly, be anecdotal, but a level 10 food that most fish will turn their noses up at is, when all is told, just a source of ammonia, whereas an 8.5 that they love is a better food.

It's like comparing it to a toddler.  If you let a toddler rate foods like sugery cereal (Trix) compared to a healthier cereal (Cascadian Farms Organic Plain O's) the toddler is going to rate the Trix much higher than the O's.  If you ask the parent, the parent will rate the Trix lower and the O's higher. Fish will not always go for what's healthier, they will go for what's tastier.  The foods rated between 8-10 are the best ones, they will give a fish a healthier, stronger, and colorful body.  But they might not always like it. To combat this, you could soak it in garlic to entice appatite if the food doesn't already have it. If they still don't like it, then you might need to feed them cheap, lower rated  foods and then provide the fish with extra meaty protein in the form of live or frozen foods.

View PostPablothebetta, on 20 August 2012 - 10:10 AM, said:

A very useful and informative post :)

The first 8 or so ingredients in my betta food (Hikari Betta Bio-Gold) according to the back of the packaging are wheat flour, fish meal, soybean meal, gluten meal, krill meat, wheat germ meal and cuttlefish oil, with a typical 41% crude protien. There is garlic further down the list too. After reading your post though, I'm wondering if I ought to get some better food. I do occassionally feed him freeze-dried bloodworms or pea, but is there a better alternative that I could give him?

Hikari Betta Bio-Gold

Fish meal, wheat flour, milt meal, Antarctic krill meal, gluten meal, clam meal, cuttlefish oil, soybean meal, enzyme, garlic, monosodium glutamate, dl-methionine, vitamin A supplement, vitamin D3 supplement, vitamin E supplement, menadione sodium bisulfite (source of vitamin K), thiamine mononitrate, pyridoxine hydrochloride, calcium pantothenate, biotin, inositol, niacin, choline chloride, folic acid, l-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (stabilized vitamin C), manganese sulfate, zinc sulfate, ferrous sulfate, magnesium sulfate, cobalt sulfate, calcium iodate, aluminum hydroxide.

It has three good protein sources and garlic, but the second ingrediant is just filler. I give it a 5.5.
But don't panic! Even if a food is lacking in the good stuff and has a low rating, you can always provide extra goodies on the side, like you already are! Feeding live or frozen food, as well as vegetables will make up for what the staple food lacks.

In case you were wondering, I checked some popular betta food and gave them ratings if you'd like. (remember, ratings are only for the ingredients! Not one if your betta likes it, or the pellets too big, etc)

Attison Betta Pro-7.5
New Life Spectrum Betta Pellets-10
Omega One Betta Buffet Pellets-8.5
NutraFin Max Color Enhancing Betta Flake Food-6
TopFin Color Enhancing Betta Bites-2.5
HBH Betta Bites-4.5
Aquarian Floating Pellet Food for Bettas-3
Aqueon Betta Pellets-8
BettaMin Tropical Medley-3
TetraBetta Floating Mini Pellets-1.5
Wardley Premium Betta Food-4.5
See the new 20 Gallon Rescape!
20 Gallon: 3 Harlequin Rasboras, 2 Pink Jewel Tetras, 7 Cardinal Tetras, 7 Kuhli Loaches, 1 Sparkling Gourami, 1 Peacock Goby, 3 Otocinclus catfish, 3 Amano Shrimp, 1 Zebra Nerite Snail
Fluval Chi 5 Gallon:  1 Female Betta (Rosy), 3 African Dwarf Frogs

#12 Pablothebetta

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Posted 20 August 2012 - 07:05 PM

Thanks for that :thumbsup: might look into the New Life, Omega or Attisons :)

Tetra doesn't seem to be very good :no:

#13 TwoTankAmin

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Posted 20 August 2012 - 07:25 PM

I have looked into this topic somewhat. Much of what you will find, including at least two of crossfire's links come from sites the sell fish food (or in many cases make it). I have read the NLS site, I have read other commercial sites as well. Unless it comes for a somewhat more independent source I am inclined to be a bit cautious about what I accept as true.

To some extent i think it is more important for one to be concerned with trying to feed any given fish the sorts of foods it would normally eat in the "wild". That is feed omnivores and assortment, carnivores get mostly meat. etc etc. And then to try to select foods which contain mostly the ingredients you want with the minimal amount of fillers possible.

I saw no mention of the Repashy Foods.

#14 scobie140

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Posted 21 August 2012 - 11:09 AM

intresting reading, I read similar reviews on dog food when looking to change brands and its amazing how poor mainstream dog food is,butchers, pedigree etc. most people are ignorant to it though as as far as they are concerned there dog(or fish in this case)  seems to love eating it and has grew and lived the average lifespan so it must be good.

#15 Dieses Madchen

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Posted 21 August 2012 - 02:46 PM

I buy my fish food from someone through mMissouri Aquarium Society. It has no preservatives (has to be kept in the freezer) and my fish love it. It comes in high protein made for carnivores and omnivores, as well as cory pellets and all veggie flakes.

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#16 tjudy

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Posted 22 August 2012 - 01:29 AM

Hi Everyone...

Good information...  There are a few things to consider about protein, binders, the solubility of vitamins and the detrimental effects of heat in production of foods.

The ingredients on a package of food are based upon what the raw materials are going into the diet.  The effect of the processing will change the nutritional value of the food.  The biggest problem is that flake and pellet foods must be subjected to very high heat during production, which will destroy some vitamins, many proteins (on purpose even) and fundamentally change lipids.  Foods that claim high fatty acid content, but have been subjected to high heat, are taking advantage of being able to claim the nutritional value of ingredients.

Vitamins are highly water soluble.  As soon as they are in the presence of water they begin to diffuse into it.  Flake foods have poor vitamin retention, which is why it is important that fish eat them quickly.  Pellets are better, because it takes longer for the water to soak in, and because the vitimans will stay inside the pellet for a while.

Protein and binders...  all flake and pellet foods must use a binder in order for the the food to maintain its shape and not fall apart into powders as soon as they hit the water.  Those binders are proteins (almost all are indigestible), and manufacturers can claim the binder in the protein percentage of the food.  In some cases, the binder in a pellet or flake food is as high as 30-40% of the total weight of the food.  If a food with 25% binder claims 50% protein, then only half of the protein in nutritional.  Indigestible binders just end up in the water as waste in the nitrogen cycle.

Someone mentioned Repashy Superfood, and since I know a lot about that product (and sell it... full disclosure!) I will tell you why it is better than heat processed foods with binders.

Repashy has ingredients that are equal in nutritional quality as you will find in any high-end fish food.  It is easy to have good ingredients, but they are costly, which is why all premium fish foods cost more.

Repashy is a gel food, not a pellet or flake, and therefore avoids the two things that degrade all flake and pellet foods.  First, the binder in Repashy is digestible (water soluble too) and makes up less than 5% of the total weight of the product.  That binder is not included on the protein percentage, so all of the protein claimed on the label is nutritional.  The binder is triggered to harden at the boiling point of water (or slightly less), which is about 200 - 300 degrees (F) cooler than the process for making dry pellet and flake foods.  This lower temperature will not affect the lipids, vitamins or proteins in Repashy.

Vitamins in Repashy are just as soluble as vitamins in flake or pellet foods, but those vitamin molecules are locked into the gel matrices along with everything else in the food.  As the gel slowly breaks down in water (a 1 inch cube takes 24 - 36 hours to dissolve, depending upon temperature and water movement) the vitamins will diffuse, but the fish eat the food long before that happens.  The gel matrix also makes it possible to add medications to the food and get it into the fish more directly.  I use Repashy to administer metronidazole, antibiotics and praziquantel.  I can use far less medication than is needed to treat a whole tank, and the filtration will not pull the meds out of the water.

I do feed flake and pellet foods.  There are many quality foods on the market that have always been great for fish and will continue to be.  I like Xtreme pellet foods a lot.  Brine Shrimp Direct sells an earthworm flake that is excellent.  But I have made the switch to Repashy as a staple diet.  I know a lot of people that have made teh switch to using Repashy at least as a conditioning food or feeding fry (for which it is uniquely suited).  You can see some videos, read more about Repashy foods, see ingredient lists, etc.... on my website:  www.tedsfishroom.com/repashy
www.tedsfishroom.com
www.aquariuminternational.com

#17 claire

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Posted 10 September 2012 - 11:27 AM

I know I'm being picky here, but it's an excellent topic and wanted to make it more accurate.
You say all animals need certain AAs to survive, I would change this to most since there are animals that don't need them in the diet e.g. ruminants.
Otherwise though, very interesting and informative!

Edited by claire, 10 September 2012 - 11:28 AM.

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#18 Detonatress

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Posted 25 September 2012 - 02:19 PM

Oh darn, so the only flakes (Tetramin) I can find around here are crap. None of the better foods rings a bell when I went to the pet shops... Guess the only natural foods I have for my fish are the dried daphnia, frozen bloodworms, boiled egg yolk and fresh salad.

Edited by Detonatress, 25 September 2012 - 02:19 PM.

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#19 Crossfire

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Posted 26 September 2012 - 01:31 AM

View PostDetonatress, on 25 September 2012 - 02:19 PM, said:

Oh darn, so the only flakes (Tetramin) I can find around here are crap. None of the better foods rings a bell when I went to the pet shops... Guess the only natural foods I have for my fish are the dried daphnia, frozen bloodworms, boiled egg yolk and fresh salad.

No need to be negative! I said in the essay, that even if you feed poor quality food, you can always avoid malnutrition by supplementing with frozen, live foods or vegetables.  The fish will still get their nutrition, just not all from the flake.  Flake is only meant as a staple food, like grain or wheat is to humans.  You can't live off of it completely, but it's found in most of our foods. :thumbsup:

If you still feel like you need to get better food, try Amazon, they have a great selection :yes:
See the new 20 Gallon Rescape!
20 Gallon: 3 Harlequin Rasboras, 2 Pink Jewel Tetras, 7 Cardinal Tetras, 7 Kuhli Loaches, 1 Sparkling Gourami, 1 Peacock Goby, 3 Otocinclus catfish, 3 Amano Shrimp, 1 Zebra Nerite Snail
Fluval Chi 5 Gallon:  1 Female Betta (Rosy), 3 African Dwarf Frogs

#20 Detonatress

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Posted 26 September 2012 - 09:03 AM

View PostCrossfire, on 26 September 2012 - 01:31 AM, said:

No need to be negative! I said in the essay, that even if you feed poor quality food, you can always avoid malnutrition by supplementing with frozen, live foods or vegetables.  The fish will still get their nutrition, just not all from the flake.  Flake is only meant as a staple food, like grain or wheat is to humans.  You can't live off of it completely, but it's found in most of our foods. :thumbsup:

If you still feel like you need to get better food, try Amazon, they have a great selection :yes:
Then I guess they get plenty of nutrients from all they are getting so far. Especially the fry.
Though the hoplo gets a wider range of food, since he eats salad and the rest don't like it.

The only thing I was negative about are the artificial food colorants. Kind of reminds me of why I avoid commercial drinks (especially the fizzy ones) and rarely drink the non-fizzy ones. I prefer homemade orange or other fruit juice to those.

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76L: Tzuppy [Hoplo] (male), Erin[llongfin swordtail](female), Rooster, Blackie,  Cherry, Sardine, Runt [home-bred swordies], bunch of assassin snails. 150L empty tank.

My morals are determined by "What if it was me in the other's place?"